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Facts about Titanium: Applications & Uses

Titanium is a common element that is found in the Earth’s crust. Its atomic number is 22 on the periodic table of elements. The 2 primary minerals which contain titanium, are Rutile and ilmenite which make up 24% of the earth’s crust. This leads to Titanium being the 9th most abundant Earth metal and is typically found in rocks and sediments.

Ti is a transition metal, which means that it can bond using electrons from multiple energy levels. The metal is silver in color, of low density, and high strength. The name originates from the word ‘Titan’ which comes from the Greek Mythology beings known as ‘Titans’, which were extremely strong and resilient.

Titanium is a transition metal with a white-silvery metallic appearance. It is a lustrous, strong metal that exhibits good resistance to atmospheric corrosion. The atomic number of titanium is 22 and it belongs to the d-block, period 4, group 4 of the periodic table. Pure titanium is insoluble in water but soluble in concentrated acids.

Titanium is the ninth most abundant metal available on earth’s crust; it is present in most igneous rocks and their sediments. Some of the minerals of titanium are ilmenite, rutile, brookite, titanite and anatase. These minerals are primarily distributed in West Australia, Canada, Norway and Ukraine. It is low in toxicity, but the powder form of titanium is an explosion hazard.

Properties of Titanium​

Symbol – Ti

Atomic Number – 22

Atomic Weight – 47.867

Melting Point – 1,660 °C (3,020 °F) Boiling Point

Boiling Point – 3,287 °C (5,949 °F)

Density – 4.5 g/cm3 (20 °C)

Oxidation States – +2, +3, +4

Electron Configuration – [Ar]3d24s2

Common Uses of Titanium

Titanium is a familiar metal. Many people know that it is used in jewelry, prosthetics, tennis rackets, goalie masks, scissors, bicycle frames, surgical tools, mobile phones and other high-performance products. Titanium is as strong as steel but weights about half as much. It is twice as strong as aluminum but only about 60% heavier.

Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element (ferro-titanium) to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. Titanium is often alloyed with aluminum (to refine grain size), vanadium, copper (to harden), iron, manganese, molybdenum, and other metals. Titanium mill products (sheet, plate, bar, wire, forgings, castings) find application in industrial, aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Powdered titanium is used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles.

Titanium Physical & General Properties

Pure titanium metal can exist as a dark gray, shiny metal or as a dark gray powder. It has a melting point of 1,677°C (3,051°F) and a boiling point of 3,277°C (5,931°F). Its density is 4.6 grams per cubic centimeter. Titanium metal is brittle when cold and can break apart easily at room temperature. At higher temperatures, it becomes malleable and ductile. Malleable means capable of being hammered into thin sheets. Ductile means capable of being drawn into thin wires.

Titanium has an interesting physical property. Small amounts of oxygen or nitrogen, make it much stronger.

In general, titanium tends to be quite unreactive. It does not combine with oxygen at room temperature. It also resists attack by acids, chlorine, and other corrosive agents. A corrosive agent is a material that tends to vigorously react or eat away at something.

Titanium becomes more reactive at high temperatures. It can actually catch fire when heated in the presence of oxygen.

Titanium Mechanical Properties Tabulation

Properties                       Metric                            Imperial

Tensile strength              220 MPa                        31900 psi

Modulus of elasticity      116 GPa                         16800 ksi

Shear modulus                43.0 GPa                        6240 ksi

Hardness, Brinell            70                                  70

Hardness, Vickers          60                                  60

Elongation at Break        54%                               54%

Poissons Ratio                0.34                               0.34

Titanium Thermal Properties Tabulation

Properties                                                                             Metric                Imperial

Thermal expansion co-efficient (@20-100°C/68-212°F)  8.90 µm/m°C      4.94 µin/in°F

Thermal conductivity                                                          17 W/mK              118 BTU in/hr.ft².°F

If you’re interested in discussing how tantalum can be used for your application, please feel free to contact our technical team directly.